Estructura De Mercado Forex: Understanding The Basics



Forex, also known as foreign exchange, is a decentralized market where currencies are traded. It is the largest and most liquid financial market in the world, with an average daily trading volume of $5.1 trillion. Understanding the structure of the forex market is essential for anyone looking to trade currencies or invest in this market.

The Players

Central Banks

Central banks are the most influential players in the forex market. They control the money supply, set interest rates, and manage the exchange rate of their currency. Their actions can have a significant impact on the market, and traders closely monitor their decisions and statements.

Commercial Banks

Commercial banks facilitate most of the daily forex transactions. They act as intermediaries between buyers and sellers and provide liquidity to the market. They also engage in speculative trading to profit from changes in exchange rates.

Hedge Funds and Investment Banks

Hedge funds and investment banks are major players in the forex market. They use sophisticated trading strategies and large amounts of capital to generate profits. They also provide liquidity to the market and contribute to price discovery.

Retail Traders

Retail traders are individuals who trade currencies for personal gain. They account for a small fraction of the overall market, but their trading activity can still have an impact on exchange rates.

The Market Structure

The forex market is decentralized, meaning there is no central exchange. Instead, trading takes place over-the-counter (OTC) through a network of banks and brokers. The market operates 24 hours a day, five days a week, with trading sessions overlapping in different time zones.

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The Spot Market

The spot market is where currencies are traded for immediate delivery. It is the most liquid and active segment of the forex market, with the highest trading volume. The exchange rate in the spot market is determined by supply and demand.

The Futures Market

The futures market is where currencies are traded for delivery at a future date. It is less liquid than the spot market but provides more certainty for buyers and sellers. Futures contracts are standardized and traded on exchanges.

The Options Market

The options market is where traders can buy or sell the right to buy or sell a currency at a specific price on or before a specific date. It provides flexibility and risk management options but is less liquid than the spot and futures markets.

The Factors that Affect Exchange Rates

Economic Data and News

Economic data and news releases can have a significant impact on exchange rates. Indicators such as GDP, inflation, and employment figures can provide insight into the health of an economy and influence the decisions of central banks.

Interest Rates

Interest rates are a key driver of exchange rates. Higher interest rates attract foreign investment and increase demand for a currency, while lower interest rates can lead to capital outflows and a weaker currency.

Geopolitical Events

Geopolitical events such as wars, elections, and natural disasters can cause volatility in the forex market. Traders monitor these events closely and adjust their positions accordingly.

Market Sentiment

Market sentiment, or the overall attitude of traders towards a currency, can also affect exchange rates. If traders believe a currency is overvalued or undervalued, they may adjust their positions accordingly, leading to price movements.

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Trading Strategies

Technical Analysis

Technical analysis involves using charts and indicators to identify trends and patterns in price movements. Traders use this information to make trading decisions and predict future price movements.

Fundamental Analysis

Fundamental analysis involves analyzing economic and political factors that can affect exchange rates. Traders use this information to make trading decisions and predict future price movements.

News Trading

News trading involves trading based on economic data releases and news events. Traders try to predict how the market will react to these events and position themselves accordingly.


Scalping is a short-term trading strategy that involves making multiple trades in a short period to profit from small price movements. It requires quick decision-making and a high level of discipline.


The forex market is a complex and dynamic market that requires a thorough understanding of its structure and the factors that affect exchange rates. Successful traders use a combination of technical and fundamental analysis, as well as a range of trading strategies, to navigate this market and generate profits.

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